Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Nature Of Operations And Accounting Policies

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Nature Of Operations And Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Nature Of Operations And Accounting Policies
1. NATURE OF OPERATIONS AND ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of Operations and Segmentation. SEACOR Holdings Inc. (“SEACOR”) and its subsidiaries (collectively referred to as the “Company”) are a diversified holding company with interests in domestic and international transportation and logistics, risk management consultancy and other businesses. Accounting standards require public business enterprises to report information about each of their operating business segments that exceed certain quantitative thresholds or meet certain other reporting requirements. Operating business segments have been defined as a component of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available and is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company has identified the following reporting segments:
Ocean Transportation & Logistics Services (“Ocean Services”). Ocean Services owns and operates a diversified fleet of bulk transportation, port and infrastructure, and logistics assets, including U.S. coastwise eligible vessels and vessels trading internationally. Ocean Services owns and operates U.S.-flag petroleum and chemical carriers servicing the U.S. coastwise crude oil, petroleum products and chemical trades. Ocean Services’ dry bulk vessels also operate in the U.S. coastwise trade. Ocean Services’ port and infrastructure services assist deep-sea vessels docking in U.S. Gulf and East Coast ports, providing ocean towing services between U.S. ports and providing oil terminal support and bunkering operations in St. Eustatius and the Bahamas. Ocean Services’ logistics services include U.S.-flag Pure Car/Truck Carriers (“PCTCs”) operating globally under the U.S. Maritime Security Program (“MSP”) and liner, short-sea, rail car and project cargo transportation and logistics solutions to and from ports in the Southeastern United States, the Caribbean (including Puerto Rico), the Bahamas and Mexico. Ocean Services also provides technical ship management services for third-party vessel owners. Ocean Services contributed 53%, 50% and 54% of the Company's consolidated operating revenues during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. During the year ended December 31, 2019, one Ocean Services (U.S. Federal Government) customer accounted for $79.6 million, or 10%, of the Company's consolidated operating revenues.
Inland Transportation & Logistics Services (“Inland Services”). Inland Services markets and operates domestic river transportation equipment, and owns fleeting and high-speed multi-modal terminal locations adjacent to and along the U.S. Inland Waterways, primarily in the St. Louis, Memphis and Baton Rouge areas. Inland Services’ barges are primarily used for moving agricultural and industrial commodities and containers on the U.S. Inland Waterways, the Mississippi River, Illinois River, Tennessee River, Ohio River and their tributaries and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterways. Internationally, Inland Services also owns inland river liquid tank barges that operate on the Magdalena River in Colombia. These barges primarily transport petroleum products. Inland Services also has a 50% interest in dry-cargo barge operations on the Parana-Paraguay Waterway in Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay primarily transporting agricultural and industrial commodities, a 63% interest in towboat operations on the U.S. Inland Waterways and a 50% interest in grain terminals/elevators along the U.S. Inland waterways. Inland Services contributed 33%, 34% and 38% of the Company's consolidated operating revenues during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Witt O’Brien’s. Witt O’Brien’s provides crisis and emergency management services for both the public and private sectors. These services strengthen clients’ resilience and assist their response to natural and man-made disasters by enhancing their ability to prepare for, respond to and recover from such disasters, while mitigating the impact of future disruptions on operations and helping communities build back stronger. Witt O’Brien’s contributed 13%, 16% and 8% of the Company's consolidated operating revenues during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Other. The Company’s Other business segment includes CLEANCOR Energy Solutions LLC (“Cleancor”), a full service provider that designs, develops and maintains alternative energy and power solutions for end users looking to displace legacy petroleum-based fuels and adopt energy supplies that have a favorable environmental footprint. Cleancor provides liquefied natural gas (“LNG”) and compressed natural gas (“CNG”) fuel supply and logistics to commercial, industrial, agricultural and transportation customers and provides natural gas during pipeline supply interruptions due to planned maintenance or other curtailments (see Note 2). Other also has activities that primarily include noncontrolling investments in various other businesses, primarily sales, storage, and maintenance support for general aviation in Asia and an agricultural commodity trading and logistics business that is primarily focused on the global origination, and trading and merchandising of sugar and other commodities.
Discontinued Operations. The Company reports the historical financial position, results of operations and cash flows of disposed businesses as discontinued operations when it has no continuing interest in the business. On June 1, 2017, the Company completed the spin-off of SEACOR Marine Holdings Inc. (“SEACOR Marine”), the company that operated SEACOR’s Offshore Marine Services business segment, by means of a dividend of all the issued and outstanding common stock of SEACOR Marine to SEACOR’s shareholders (the “Spin-off”). SEACOR Marine is now an independent company
whose common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “SMHI.” For all periods presented herein, the Company has reported the historical results of operations and cash flows of SEACOR Marine as discontinued operations (see Note 19).
On July 3, 2017, the Company completed the sale of its 70% interest in Illinois Corn Processing LLC (“ICP”), the company that operated SEACOR’s Illinois Corn Processing business segment. The Company received $21.0 million in cash and a note from the buyer for $32.8 million, after working capital adjustments, resulting in a gain of $10.9 million, net of tax. On September 15, 2017, the Company received payment of the outstanding balance of the note, including accrued and unpaid interest. For all periods presented herein, the Company has reported the historical results of operations and cash flows of ICP as discontinued operations (see Note 19).
Basis of Consolidation. The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of SEACOR and its controlled subsidiaries. Control is generally deemed to exist if the Company has greater than 50% of the voting rights of a subsidiary. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Noncontrolling interests in consolidated subsidiaries are included in the consolidated balance sheets as a separate component of equity. The Company reports consolidated net income inclusive of both the Company’s and the noncontrolling interests’ share, as well as the amounts of consolidated net income attributable to each of the Company and the noncontrolling interests. If a subsidiary is deconsolidated upon a change in control, any retained noncontrolled equity investment in the former controlled subsidiary is measured at fair value and a gain or loss is recognized in net income based on such fair value. If a subsidiary is consolidated upon a change in control, any previous noncontrolled equity investment in the subsidiary is measured at fair value and a gain or loss is recognized based on such fair value.
The Company employs the equity method of accounting for investments in 50% or less owned companies that it does not control but has the ability to exercise significant influence over the operating and financial policies of the business venture. Significant influence is generally deemed to exist if the Company has between 20% and 50% of the voting rights of a business venture but may exist when the Company’s ownership percentage is less than 20%. In certain circumstances, the Company may have an economic interest in excess of 50% but may not control and consolidate the business venture. Conversely, the Company may have an economic interest less than 50% but may control and consolidate the business venture. The Company reports its investments in and advances to these business ventures in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets as investments, at equity, and advances to 50% or less owned companies. The Company reports its share of earnings or losses from investments in 50% or less owned companies in the accompanying consolidated statements of income as equity in earnings (losses) of 50% or less owned companies, net of tax.
The Company employs the cost method of accounting for investments in 50% or less owned companies it does not control or exercise significant influence. These investments in private companies are carried at cost and are adjusted only for capital distributions and other-than-temporary declines in fair value.
Acquisition of Noncontrolling Interest. On August 2, 2019, the Company, through certain subsidiaries, became the sole owner of the SEA-Vista joint venture by acquiring the 49% interest (the “Remaining SEA-Vista Interest”) that had been owned by ACP III Tankers, LLC (the "Seller"), an affiliate of Avista Capital Partners. As consideration for the Remaining SEA-Vista Interest, SEACOR issued 1,500,000 shares of Common Stock to the Seller (the "Consideration Shares"), in a noncash transaction, and the Company paid $107.7 million  in cash, inclusive of expenses related to the transaction (see Notes 12 and 13).
Use of Estimates. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Such estimates include those related to allowance for doubtful accounts, useful lives of property and equipment, impairments, income tax provisions and certain accrued liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates and those differences may be material.
Adoption of New Accounting Standards. On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Topic 842, Leases (“Topic 842”) using a modified prospective approach and implemented internal controls and systems to enable the preparation of financial information upon adoption. The Company elected the available practical expedients permitted under the guidance including the option to not separate lease and nonlease components in calculating the right-of-use assets and corresponding lease liabilities and to not apply the recognition requirements of Topic 842 to short-term leases (leases that have a duration of twelve months or less at lease inception). Generally, it was not possible for the Company to determine the interest rate implicit in each of its operating leases and therefore used its incremental borrowing rate in calculating operating lease right-of-use assets and lease liabilities. The Company assigned its leases to portfolios based on the remaining term at the time of adoption and applied a single rate to each portfolio of leases as the result was not materially different than using a specific discount rate for each individual lease. The Company included renewal options that were reasonably certain of being exercised in determining the lease term. Upon adoption, the Company recorded operating lease right-of-use assets and lease liabilities of $175.0 million for certain of its equipment, offices, real property and land leases (see
Note 8). In addition, the Company recognized a cumulative-effect adjustment of $25.4 million, net of tax, to the opening balance of retained earnings primarily for previously deferred gains related to sale-leaseback transactions.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Financial Accounting Standard Board (“FASB”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”). As a consequence of adopting Topic 606, the Company now recognizes all of the operating revenues and expenses associated with the dry-cargo barge pools it manages along with additional operating expenses reflective of barge pool earnings attributable to third-party barge owners and not the Company in its capacity as manager. Under Topic 606, the Company determined it was a principal with respect to the third-party barge owners. Previously, the Company recognized operating revenues and expenses only for its proportionate share of the barge pools in which it participated, as it acted as an agent. All prior periods have been adjusted to reflect the retrospective adoption of Topic 606, which resulted in additional revenues and operating expenses of $73.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The adoption of Topic 606 had no impact on previously reported balance sheets, operating income, net income or earnings (loss) per share.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2016-16, Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory, which eliminates the deferral of the tax effects of intercompany asset sales other than inventory until the transferred assets are sold to a third party or recovered through use. As a result of the adoption of the standard, the deferred tax charges previously recognized from those sales resulted in a decrease in deferred tax assets and a cumulative adjustment to retained earnings of $2.5 million in the consolidated balance sheets and statements of changes in equity as of January 1, 2018.
Revenue Recognition. The Company earns revenues from contracts with customers and from lease contracts.
Revenue from Contracts with Customers. Revenue is recognized when (or as) the Company transfers promised goods or services to its customers in amounts that reflect the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services, which occurs when (or as) the Company satisfies its contractual obligations and transfers control of the promised goods or services to its customers. Costs to obtain or fulfill a contract are expensed as incurred.
Ocean Services' revenues from contracts with customers primarily arise from voyage charters, contracts of affreightment, tariff based port and infrastructure services, unit freight logistics services, and technical ship management agreements with vessel owners (see Note 18). Ocean Services transfers control of the service to the customer and satisfies its performance obligation over the term of the contract, and therefore recognizes revenue over the term of the contract while related costs are expensed as incurred. Voyage charters are contracts to carry cargoes on a single voyage basis for a predetermined price, regardless of time to complete. Contracts of affreightment are contracts for cargoes that are committed on a multi-voyage basis for various periods of time, with minimum and maximum cargo tonnages specified over the period at a fixed or escalating rate per ton. Tariff based port and infrastructure services typically include operating harbor tugs alongside oceangoing vessels to escort them to their berth, assisting with the docking and undocking of these oceangoing vessels and escorting them back out to sea. They are contracted using prevailing port tariff terms on a per-use basis. In the unit freight logistics trade, transportation services typically include transporting shipping containers, rail cars, project cargoes, automobiles and U.S. military vehicles and are generally contracted on a per unit basis for the specified cargo and destination, typically in accordance with a publicly available tariff rate or based on a negotiated rate when moving larger volumes over an extended period. Managed services include technical ship and crew management agreements whereby Ocean Services provides technical ship and crew management services to third-party customers for a predetermined price over a specified period of time, typically a year or more.
Inland Services' revenues from contracts with customers primarily arise from contracts of affreightment, terminal operations, fleeting operations and repair and maintenance services (see Note 18). Inland Services transfers control of the service to the customer and satisfies its performance obligation over the term of the contract, and therefore recognizes revenue over the term of the contract while related costs are expensed as incurred. Contracts of affreightment are contracts whereby customers are charged an established rate per ton to transport cargo from point-to-point. Terminal operations includes tank farms and dry bulk and container handling facilities that are marketed under contractual rates and terms driven by throughput volume. Fleeting operations includes fleeting services whereby barges are held in fleeting areas for an agreed-upon day rate and shifting services whereby harbor boats are used to pick up and drop off barges to assist in assembling tows and to move barges to and from the dock for loading and unloading at predetermined per-shift fees. Other operations primarily include a machine shop specializing in towboat and barge cleaning, repair and maintenance services that are charged on an hourly or a fixed fee basis depending on the scope and nature of the work.
Witt O’Brien’s revenues from contracts with customers primarily arise from time and material and retainer contracts (see Note 18). Witt O’Brien’s transfers control of the service to the customer and satisfies its performance obligation over the term of the contract, and therefore recognizes revenue over the term of the contract while related costs are expensed as incurred. Time and material contracts primarily relate to emergency response, debris management or consulting services that Witt O’Brien’s performs for a predetermined fee. Retainer contracts, which are nearly all with vessel services operators and oil companies, are contracted based on agreed-upon rates.
The Company’s Other business segment includes Cleancor, which primarily earns revenues from the sale of liquefied natural gas (see Note 18). Under these arrangements, control of the goods are transferred to the customer and performance obligations are satisfied at a point in time, and therefore revenue is recognized upon delivery while any related costs are expensed as incurred.
Contract liabilities from contracts with customers arise when the Company has received consideration prior to performance and are included in other current liabilities in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The Company’s contract liability activity for the years ended December 31, were as follows (in thousands):
2019 2018
Balance at beginning of period $ 968    $ 983   
Previously deferred revenues recognized upon completion of performance obligations during the period (968)   (983)  
Net contract liabilities arising during the period 794    968   
Balance at end of period $ 794    $ 968   
Lease Revenues. The Company’s lease revenues are primarily from time charters, bareboat charters and non-vessel rental agreements that are recognized ratably over the lease term as services are provided, typically on a per day basis. Under a time charter, the Company provides a vessel to a customer for a set term and is responsible for all operating expenses, typically excluding fuel. Under a bareboat charter, the Company provides a vessel to a customer for a set term and the customer assumes responsibility for all operating expenses and risks of operation. Under a non-vessel rental agreement, the Company provides non-vessel property or equipment to a customer for a set term and the customer assumes responsibility for all operating expenses and risks of operation.
Cash Equivalents. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents consist of U.S. treasury securities, money market instruments, time deposits and overnight investments.
Restricted Cash and Restricted Cash Equivalents. Restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents primarily relates to cash collateral for letters of credit and banking facility requirements.
Marketable Securities. Marketable equity securities and debt securities with readily determinable fair values are reported in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets as marketable securities. These investments are stated at fair value, as determined by their observable market prices, with both realized and unrealized gains and losses reported in the accompanying consolidated statements of income as marketable security gains (losses), net. Short sales of marketable securities are stated at fair value in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets with both realized and unrealized gains and losses reported in the accompanying consolidated statements of income as marketable security gains (losses), net. Long and short marketable security positions are primarily in energy, marine, transportation and other related businesses. Marketable securities are classified as trading securities for financial reporting purposes with gains and losses reported as operating activities in the accompanying consolidated statements of cash flows.
Trade Receivables. Customers of Ocean Services are primarily multinational oil companies, refining companies, oil trading companies, major gasoline retailers, large industrial consumers of crude, petroleum and chemicals, trading houses, pools, major automobile manufacturers and shippers, the U.S. government and regional power utilities. Customers of Inland Services are primarily major agricultural companies, fertilizer companies, trading companies and industrial companies. Customers of Witt O’Brien’s are primarily governments, energy companies, ship managers and owners, healthcare providers, universities and school systems. Customers of the Company’s other business activities primarily include agricultural and feed companies, asphalt producers and municipalities and government agencies. All customers are granted credit on a short-term basis and related credit risks are considered minimal. The Company routinely reviews its trade receivables and makes provisions for probable doubtful accounts; however, those provisions are estimates and actual results could differ from those estimates and those differences may be material. Trade receivables are deemed uncollectible and removed from accounts receivable and the allowance for doubtful accounts when collection efforts have been exhausted.
Other Receivables. Other receivables primarily consists of income tax and insurance claim receivables. Other receivables also includes amounts due from certain of the Company’s 50% or less owned companies for working capital in excess of working capital advances, which are typically settled monthly in arrears.
Derivative Instruments. The Company accounts for derivatives through the use of a fair value concept whereby all of the Company’s derivative positions are stated at fair value in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on derivatives not designated as hedges are reported in the accompanying consolidated statements of income as derivative gains. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on derivatives designated as fair value hedges are recognized as corresponding increases or decreases in the fair value of the underlying hedged item to the extent they are effective, with any ineffective portion reported in the accompanying consolidated statements of income as derivative gains. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on derivatives designated as cash flow hedges are reported as a component of other
comprehensive income (loss) in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive income to the extent they are effective and reclassified into earnings on the same line item associated with the hedged transaction and in the same period the hedged transaction affects earnings. Any ineffective portions of cash flow hedges are reported in the accompanying consolidated statements of income as derivative gains. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on derivatives designated as cash flow hedges that are entered into by the Company’s 50% or less owned companies are also reported as a component of the Company’s other comprehensive income (loss) in proportion to the Company’s ownership percentage, with reclassifications and ineffective portions being included in equity in earnings (losses) of 50% or less owned companies, net of tax, in the accompanying consolidated statements of income.
Concentrations of Credit Risk. The Company is exposed to concentrations of credit risk associated with its cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents, construction reserve funds and derivative instruments. The Company minimizes its credit risk relating to these positions by monitoring the financial condition of the financial institutions and counterparties involved and by primarily conducting business with large, well-established financial institutions and diversifying its counterparties. The Company does not currently anticipate nonperformance of its significant counterparties. The Company is also exposed to concentrations of credit risk relating to its receivables due from customers in the industries described above. The Company does not generally require collateral or other security to support its outstanding receivables. The Company minimizes its credit risk relating to receivables by performing ongoing credit evaluations and, to date, credit losses have not been material.
Inventories. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (using the first-in, first-out method) or market. Inventories consist primarily of fuel and fuel oil consumed by the Company’s vessels in its Ocean Services and Inland Services business segments. The Company records write-downs, as needed, to adjust the carrying amount of inventories to the lower of cost or market. During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, the Company had no market write-downs of inventory.
Property and Equipment. Equipment, stated at cost, is depreciated using the straight line method over the estimated useful life of the asset to an estimated salvage value. With respect to each class of asset, the estimated useful life is typically based upon a newly built asset being placed into service and represents the point at which it is typically not justifiable for the Company to continue to operate the asset in the same or similar manner. From time to time, the Company may acquire older assets that have already exceeded their useful life as set forth in the Company’s useful life policy, in which case the Company depreciates such assets based on its best estimate of remaining useful life, typically the next survey or certification date.
As of December 31, 2019, the estimated useful life (in years) of each of the Company’s major classes of new equipment was as follows:
Petroleum and chemical carriers - U.S.-flag 25
Bulk carriers - U.S.-flag 25
Harbor and offshore tugs 25
Ocean liquid tank barges 25
Short-sea container/RORO(1) vessels
20
Inland river dry-cargo and specialty barges 20
Inland river liquid tank barges 25
Inland river towboats and harbor boats 25
Terminal and fleeting facilities 20
______________________
(1)Roll On/Roll Off.
The Company’s major classes of property and equipment as of December 31, were as follows (in thousands):
Historical
Cost(1)
Accumulated
Depreciation
Net Book
Value
2019
Ocean Services:
Petroleum and chemical carriers - U.S.-flag $ 649,795    $ (267,894)   $ 381,901   
Harbor and offshore tugs - U.S.-flag 133,419    (47,637)   85,782   
Harbor tugs - Foreign-flag 45,379    (16,067)   29,312   
Ocean liquid tank barges - U.S.-flag 39,238    (16,171)   23,067   
Short-sea container/RORO - Foreign-flag 27,073    (11,990)   15,083   
Bulk carriers - U.S.-flag 13,000    (9,800)   3,200   
Other(2)
21,516    (10,994)   10,522   
Construction in Progress 2,847    —    2,847   
932,267    (380,553)   551,714   
Inland Services:
Dry-cargo barges 225,278    (118,615)   106,663   
Specialty barges 3,828    (2,344)   1,484   
Liquid tank barges 19,784    (3,684)   16,100   
Towboats 62,207    (4,981)   57,226   
Harbor boats 19,296    (9,324)   9,972   
Terminal and fleeting facilities 103,455    (65,960)   37,495   
Other(2)
27,536    (11,388)   16,148   
Construction in Progress 7,736    —    7,736   
469,120    (216,296)   252,824   
Witt O’Brien’s:
Other(2)
1,134    (993)   141   
Other:
Other(3)
8,897    (2,450)   6,447   
Corporate and Eliminations:
Other(2)
30,964    (23,732)   7,232   
$ 1,442,382    $ (624,024)   $ 818,358   
______________________
(1)Includes property and equipment acquired in business acquisitions at acquisition date fair value.
(2)Includes land and buildings, leasehold improvements, fixed-wing aircraft, vehicles and other property and equipment.
(3)Includes LNG Equipment and other property and equipment.
Historical
Cost(1)
Accumulated
Depreciation
Net Book
Value
2018
Ocean Services:
Petroleum and chemical carriers - U.S.-flag $ 649,795    $ (241,604)   $ 408,191   
Harbor and offshore tugs - U.S.-flag 132,697    (41,764)   90,933   
Harbor tugs - Foreign-flag 45,379    (13,822)   31,557   
Ocean liquid tank barges - U.S.-flag 39,238    (14,649)   24,589   
Short-sea container/RORO - Foreign-flag 29,846    (10,644)   19,202   
Bulk carriers - U.S.-flag 13,000    (9,800)   3,200   
Other(2)
20,073    (9,716)   10,357   
Construction in Progress 202    —    202   
930,230    (341,999)   588,231   
Inland Services:
Dry-cargo barges 222,539    (106,157)   116,382   
Specialty barges 3,828    (1,904)   1,924   
Liquid tank barges 20,011    (3,054)   16,957   
Towboats 43,998    (3,294)   40,704   
Harbor boats 18,695    (8,047)   10,648   
Terminal and fleeting facilities 99,696    (62,274)   37,422   
Other(2)
22,213    (10,364)   11,849   
Construction in Progress 7,868    —    7,868   
438,848    (195,094)   243,754   
Witt O’Brien’s:
Other(2)
1,227    (1,031)   196   
Other:
Other(3)
6,892    (490)   6,402   
Corporate and Eliminations:
Other(2)
30,132    (22,205)   7,927   
$ 1,407,329    $ (560,819)   $ 846,510   
______________________
(1)Includes property and equipment acquired in business acquisitions at acquisition date fair value.
(2)Includes land and buildings, leasehold improvements, fixed-wing aircraft, vehicles and other property and equipment.
(3)Includes LNG Equipment and other property and equipment.
During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, depreciation expense totaled $65.0 million, $69.9 million and $72.1 million, respectively.
Equipment maintenance and repair costs and the costs of routine overhauls, dry-dockings and inspections performed on vessels and equipment are charged to operating expense as incurred. Expenditures that extend the useful life or improve the marketing and commercial characteristics of equipment as well as major renewals and improvements to other properties are capitalized.
Certain interest costs incurred during the construction of equipment are capitalized as part of the assets’ carrying values and are amortized over such assets’ estimated useful lives. During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, capitalized interest totaled $0.1 million, $0.2 million and $2.7 million, respectively.
As of December 31, 2019, the Company’s construction in progress totaling $12.5 million primarily consisted of the construction of harbor tugs, inland river towboats and other Inland Services equipment, and is included in historical cost in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Intangible Assets. The Company’s intangible assets primarily arose from business acquisitions (see Note 2) and consist of trademarks and tradenames, customer relationships and acquired contractual rights. These intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives generally ranging from one to 15 years. During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, the Company recognized amortization expense of $3.6 million, $4.7 million and $2.9 million, respectively.
The Company’s intangible assets by type were as follows (in thousands):
Trademark/
Tradenames
Customer
Relationships
Acquired
Contractual
Rights
Total
Gross Carrying Value
Year Ended December 31, 2017 $ 3,324    $ 15,365    $ 18,358    $ 37,047   
Acquired intangible assets —    1,120    —    1,120   
Fully amortized intangible assets —    (1,120)   —    (1,120)  
Year Ended December 31, 2018 3,324    15,365    18,358    37,047   
Acquired intangible assets —    —    —    —   
Year Ended December 31, 2019 $ 3,324    $ 15,365    $ 18,358    $ 37,047   
Accumulated Amortization   
Year Ended December 31, 2017 $ (1,980)   $ (5,146)   $ (1,815)   $ (8,941)  
Amortization expense (332)   (2,402)   (1,941)   (4,675)  
Fully amortized intangible assets —    1,120    —    1,120   
Year Ended December 31, 2018 (2,312)   (6,428)   (3,756)   (12,496)  
Amortization expense (332)   (1,282)   (1,941)   (3,555)  
Year Ended December 31, 2019 $ (2,644)   $ (7,710)   $ (5,697)   $ (16,051)  
Weighted average remaining contractual life, in years 2.0 7.1 7.1 6.9
Future amortization expense of intangible assets for each of the years ended December 31, is as follows (in thousands):
2020 $ 3,555   
2021 3,571   
2022 2,866   
2023 2,852   
2024 2,833   
Years subsequent to 2024 5,319   
$ 20,996   
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets. The Company performs an impairment analysis of long-lived assets used in operations, including intangible assets, when indicators of impairment are present. These indicators may include a significant decrease in the market price of a long-lived asset or asset group, a significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which a long-lived asset or asset group is being used or in its physical condition, or a current period operating or cash flow loss combined with a history of operating or cash flow losses or a forecast that demonstrates continuing losses associated with the use of a long-lived asset or asset group. If the carrying values of the assets are not recoverable, as determined by the estimated undiscounted cash flows, the estimated fair value of the assets or asset groups are compared to their current carrying values and impairment charges are recorded if the carrying value exceeds fair value. The Company performs its testing on an asset or asset group basis. Generally, fair value is determined using valuation techniques, such as expected discounted cash flows or appraisals, as appropriate. During the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company did not recognize any impairment charges related to its property and equipment held for use. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company recognized impairment charges of $0.4 million related to property and equipment held for use, which are included in gains (losses) on asset dispositions and impairments, net in the accompanying consolidated statements of income.
Impairment of 50% or Less Owned Companies. Investments in 50% or less owned companies are reviewed periodically to assess whether there is an other-than-temporary decline in the carrying value of the investment. In its evaluation, the Company considers, among other items, recent and expected financial performance and returns, impairments recorded by the investee and the capital structure of the investee. Generally, fair value is determined using valuation techniques, such as expected discounted cash flows or appraisals, as appropriate. When the Company determines the estimated fair value of an investment is below carrying value and the decline is other-than-temporary, the investment is written down to its estimated fair value. Actual results may vary from the Company’s estimates due to the uncertainty regarding projected financial performance, the severity and expected duration of declines in value, and the available liquidity in the capital markets to support the continuing operations of the investee, among other factors. Although the Company believes its assumptions and estimates are reasonable, the investee’s actual performance compared with the estimates could produce different results and lead to additional impairment charges in future periods. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company did not recognize any impairment charges related to its 50% or less owned companies. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and
2017, the Company recognized impairment charges of $0.1 million and $0.9 million, respectively, related to its 50% or less owned companies, which are included in equity in earnings (losses) of 50% or less owned companies, net of tax in the accompanying consolidated statements of income (see Note 4).
Goodwill. Goodwill is recorded when the purchase price paid for an acquisition exceeds the fair value of net identified tangible and intangible assets acquired. As of December 31, 2019, substantially all of the Company’s goodwill is related to Witt O’Brien’s. The Company performs an annual impairment test of goodwill on October 1 of each year and further periodic tests to the extent indicators of impairment develop between annual impairment tests. The Company’s impairment review process compares the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value, including the goodwill, related to the reporting unit. To determine the fair value of the reporting unit, the Company may use various approaches including an asset or cost approach, market approach or income approach or any combination thereof. These approaches may require the Company to make certain estimates and assumptions including projections of future cash flows, revenues and expenses. These estimates and assumptions are reviewed each time the Company tests goodwill for impairment and are typically developed as part of the Company’s routine business planning and forecasting process. Although the Company believes its assumptions and estimates are reasonable, the Company’s actual performance against its estimates could produce different results and lead to impairment charges in future periods. During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, the Company did not recognize any impairment charges related to its goodwill.
Business Combinations. The Company recognizes 100% of the fair value of assets acquired, liabilities assumed, and noncontrolling interests when the acquisition constitutes a change in control of the acquired entity. Shares issued in consideration for a business combination, contingent consideration arrangements and pre-acquisition loss and gain contingencies are all measured and recorded at their acquisition-date fair value. Subsequent changes to fair value of contingent consideration arrangements are generally reflected in earnings. Any in-process research and development assets acquired are capitalized as are certain acquisition-related restructuring costs if the criteria related to exit or disposal cost obligations are met as of the acquisition date. Acquisition-related transaction costs are expensed as incurred and any changes in income tax valuation allowances and tax uncertainty accruals are recorded as an adjustment to income tax expense (benefit). The operating results of entities acquired are included in the accompanying consolidated statements of income from the date of acquisition (see Note 2).
Debt Discount and Issuance Costs. Debt discounts and costs incurred in connection with the issuance of debt are amortized over the life of the related debt using the effective interest rate method for term loans and straight line method for revolving credit facilities and is included in interest expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of income.
Self-insurance Liabilities. The Company maintains hull, liability and war risk, general liability, workers compensation and other insurance customary in the industries in which it operates. Certain excess and property insurance policies are obtained through SEACOR sponsored programs, with premiums charged to participating businesses based on management’s risk assessment or insured asset values. The marine hull and liability policies have significant annual aggregate deductibles that are accrued based on actual claims incurred. The Company also maintains self-insured health benefit plans for its participating employees. Exposure to the health benefit plans are limited by maintaining stop-loss and aggregate liability coverage. To the extent that estimated self-insurance losses, including the accrual of annual aggregate deductibles, differ from actual losses realized, the Company’s insurance reserves could differ significantly and may result in either higher or lower insurance expense in future periods.
Income Taxes. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities have been provided in recognition of the income tax effect attributable to the book and tax basis differences of assets and liabilities reported in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. Deferred tax assets or liabilities are provided using the enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the periods in which they are expected to be settled or realized. Interest and penalties relating to uncertain tax positions are recognized in interest expense and administrative and general, respectively, in the accompanying consolidated statements of income. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company records any liability associated with global intangible low-taxed income (GILTI) in the period it is incurred.
In the normal course of business, the Company may be subject to challenges from tax authorities regarding the amount of taxes due. These challenges may alter the timing or amount of taxable income or deductions. As part of the calculation of income tax expense (benefit), the Company determines whether the benefits of its tax positions are at least more likely than not of being sustained based on the technical merits of the tax position. For tax positions that are more likely than not of being sustained, the Company accrues the largest amount of the tax benefit that is more likely than not of being sustained. Such accruals require management to make estimates and judgments with respect to the ultimate outcome of its tax benefits and actual results could vary materially from these estimates.
Deferred Gains – Equipment Sale-Leaseback Transactions and Financed Equipment Sales. From time to time, the Company enters into equipment sale-leaseback transactions with finance companies or provides seller financing on sales of its equipment to third parties or 50% or less owned companies. A portion of the gains realized from these transactions is not immediately recognized in income and has been recorded in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets in deferred gains and other liabilities. In sale-leaseback transactions (see Note 3), gains are deferred to the extent of the present value of future minimum lease payments and are amortized as reductions to rental expense over the applicable lease terms. In financed equipment sales (see Note 3), gains are deferred to the extent that the repayment of purchase notes is dependent on the future operations of the sold equipment and are amortized based on cash received from the buyers. Deferred gain activity related to these transactions for the years ended December 31, was as follows (in thousands):
2019 2018 2017
Balance at beginning of year $ 39,102    $ 66,519    $ 74,774   
Impact of adoption of accounting principle(1)
(29,207)   —    —   
Deferred gains arising from equipment sales —    —    13,336   
Amortization of deferred gains included in operating expenses as a reduction to rental expense —    (12,774)   (15,035)  
Amortization of deferred gains included in gains on asset dispositions and impairments, net (1,127)   (11,591)   (602)  
Reclassification of deferred gains into historical cost on reacquired property and equipment —    (3,052)   (5,954)  
Balance at end of year
$ 8,768    $ 39,102    $ 66,519   
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(1)On January 1, 2019 the Company adopted Topic 842 and reduced deferred gains associated with sale-leaseback transactions through a beginning period retained earnings adjustment.
Deferred Gains – Equipment Sales to the Company’s 50% or Less Owned Companies. A portion of the gains realized from non-financed sales of the Company’s vessels and barges to its 50% or less owned companies is not immediately recognized in income and has been recorded in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets in deferred gains and other liabilities. Effective January 1, 2009, the Company adopted new accounting rules related to the sale of its vessels and barges to its 50% or less owned companies. In most instances, these sale transactions are now considered a sale of a business in which the Company relinquishes control to its 50% or less owned companies. Subsequent to the adoption of the new accounting rules, gains are deferred only to the extent of the Company’s uncalled capital commitments and are amortized as those commitments lapse or funded amounts are returned. For transactions occurring prior to the adoption of the new accounting rules, gains were deferred and are being amortized based on the Company’s ownership interest, cash received and the applicable equipment’s useful lives. Deferred gain activity related to these transactions for the years ended December 31, was as follows (in thousands):
2019 2018 2017
Balance at beginning of year $ 4,562    $ 5,934    $ 7,649   
Amortization of deferred gains included in gains on asset dispositions and impairments, net (1,322)   (1,372)   (1,715)  
Balance at end of year
$ 3,240    $ 4,562    $ 5,934   
Stock Based Compensation. Stock based compensation is amortized to compensation expense on a straight line basis over the requisite service period of the grants using the Black-Scholes valuation model. The Company does not estimate forfeitures in its expense calculations as forfeiture history has been minor. The Company presents the excess tax benefits from the exercise of stock options as a financing cash flow in the accompanying consolidated statements of cash flows.
Foreign Currency Translation. The assets, liabilities and results of operations of certain SEACOR subsidiaries are measured using their functional currency, which is the currency of the primary foreign economic environment in which they operate. Upon consolidating these subsidiaries with SEACOR, their assets and liabilities are translated to U.S. dollars at currency exchange rates as of the balance sheet dates and their revenues and expenses are translated at the weighted average currency exchange rates during the applicable reporting periods. Translation adjustments resulting from the process of translating these subsidiaries’ financial statements are reported in other comprehensive income (loss) in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss. The components of accumulated other comprehensive loss were as follows (in thousands):
SEACOR Holdings Inc. Stockholders’ Equity Noncontrolling
Interests
Foreign
Currency
Translation
Adjustments
Derivative Gains
(Losses) on
Cash Flow
Hedges, net
Other Total Foreign
Currency
Translation
Adjustments
Derivative
Losses on
Cash Flow
Hedges, net
Other Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Year ended December 31, 2016 $ (11,593)   $ 75    $   $ (11,514)   $ (1,613)   $ (17)   $  
Discontinued Operations 10,031    94    —    10,125    1,460       
Other comprehensive income (loss) 1,812    (260)   (6)   1,546    153    13    (5)   $ 1,707   
Income tax (expense) benefit (795)   91      (702)   —    —    —    (702)  
Year ended December 31, 2017 (545)   —    —    (545)   —    —    —    $ 1,005   
Other comprehensive loss (391)   —    —    (391)   —    —    —    $ (391)  
Income tax benefit 22    —    —    22    —    —    —    22   
Year ended December 31, 2018 (914)   —    —    (914)   —    —    —    $ (369)  
Other comprehensive income (loss) (83)   67    —    (16)   —    —    —    $ (16)  
Income tax expense (68)   —    —    (68)   —    —    —    (68)  
Year ended December 31, 2019 $ (1,065)   $ 67    $ —    $ (998)   $ —    $ —    $ —    $ (84)  
Foreign Currency Transactions. Certain SEACOR subsidiaries enter into transactions denominated in currencies other than their functional currency. Gains and losses resulting from changes in currency exchange rates between the functional currency and the currency in which a transaction is denominated are included in foreign currency gains (losses), net in the accompanying consolidated statements of income in the period in which the currency exchange rates change.
Earnings Per Share. Basic earnings per common share of SEACOR are computed based on the weighted average number of common shares issued and outstanding during the relevant periods. Diluted earnings per common share of SEACOR are computed based on the weighted average number of common shares issued and outstanding plus the effect of potentially dilutive securities through the application of the treasury stock and if-converted methods. Dilutive securities for this purpose assumes restricted stock grants have vested, common shares have been issued pursuant to the exercise of outstanding stock options and common shares have been issued pursuant to the conversion of all outstanding convertible notes.
Computations of basic and diluted earnings per common share of SEACOR for the years ended December 31, were as follows (in thousands, except share data):
Net Income Average o/s Shares Per Share
2019
Basic Weighted Average Common Shares Outstanding $ 26,774    18,949,981    $ 1.41   
Effect of Dilutive Securities:
Options and Restricted Stock(1)
—    129,250   
Convertible Securities(2)(3)
1,273    1,227,101   
Diluted Weighted Average Common Shares Outstanding $ 28,047    20,306,332    $ 1.38   
2018
Basic Weighted Average Common Shares Outstanding $ 58,148    18,080,778    $ 3.22   
Effect of Dilutive Securities:
Options and Restricted Stock(1)
—    267,810   
Convertible Securities(2)(3)
1,273    1,227,101   
Diluted Weighted Average Common Shares Outstanding $ 59,421    19,575,689    $ 3.04   
2017
Basic Weighted Average Common Shares Outstanding $ 61,643    17,368,081    $ 3.55   
Effect of Dilutive Securities:
Options and Restricted Stock(1)
—    308,012   
Convertible Securities
14,346    5,258,065   
Diluted Weighted Average Common Shares Outstanding $ 75,989    22,934,158    $ 3.31   
______________________
(1)For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, diluted earnings per common share of SEACOR excluded 827,222, 333,510 and 1,924,217, respectively, of certain share awards as the effect of their inclusion in the computation would be anti-dilutive.
(2)For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 diluted earnings per common share of SEACOR excluded 928,464 and 1,946,917 shares, respectively, issuable pursuant to the Company’s 3.0% Convertible Senior Notes (see Note 7) as the effect of their inclusion in the computation would be anti-dilutive.
(3)For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 diluted earnings per share of SEACOR excluded 1,553,780 and 983,351 shares, respectively, issuable pursuant to the Company’s 3.25% Convertible Senior Notes (see Note 7) as the effect of their inclusion in the computation would be anti-dilutive.
New Accounting Pronouncements. On June 16, 2016, the FASB issued an amendment to the accounting standards, which replaces the current incurred loss impairment methodology for financial assets measured at amortized cost with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information, including forecasted information, to develop credit loss estimates. The new standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company does not expect the adoption of the new standard will have a material impact on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
On January 26, 2017, the FASB issued an amendment to the accounting standards, which simplified wording and removed step two of the goodwill impairment test. A goodwill impairment will now be the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. The FASB also eliminated the requirements for any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform a qualitative assessment and, if it fails that qualitative test, to perform step two of the goodwill test. The new standard is effective for annual or interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company has not yet determined what impact, if any, the adoption of the new standard will have on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
On August 29, 2018, the FASB issued an amendment to the accounting standards, which requires implementation costs incurred by customers in cloud computing arrangements to be deferred and recognized over the term of the arrangement, if those costs would be capitalized by the customers in a software licensing arrangement. The guidance will be effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect the new standard to have a material impact on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
On December 18, 2019, the FASB issued an amendment to the accounting standards, which enhances and simplifies various aspects of the income tax accounting guidance including the elimination of certain exceptions related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. The new guidance also simplifies aspects of the accounting for franchise taxes and
enacted changes in tax laws or rates and clarifies the accounting for transactions that result in a step-up in the tax basis of goodwill. The guidance will be effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company has not yet determined what impact, if any, the adoption of the new standard will have on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.